Nutrition

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The nutrition component of JPS-BK targeted babies, children under fi ve

years and pregnant women from poor households, and aimed to improve

their nutritional status by providing packages of supplementary foods. The

selection criteria for this sub-program were generally similar to the Health

Card scheme, drawing on the BKKBN lists to target recipients. The health

service posts (Pos Pelayanan Terpadu) that had been established at the

village level to provide services for children, young mothers and pregnant

women were often used as the channel to deliver these packages under the

supervision of the village midwife.

The coverage of the nutrition program among the poor appears to have

been more effective than the Health Card. The 1999 SUSENAS data reveal

that 16.5 per cent of households in the poorest quintile participated in the

program. Nevertheless, there was still evidence of a considerable amount

of leakage to non-poor families as the participation rate of the richest 80

per cent of the population was 15.8 per cent, almost equal to the coverage

of the poor (see Table 3.9). This resulted in close to random targeting,

rather than a pro-poor program and implied a high type two error, even if

type one problems of undercoverage were less serious than for some of the

other targeting measures.