Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)

К оглавлению
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 
119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 

The newest version of self-employment schemes – the SGSY – is a holistic

program covering different aspects of self-employment including organizing

the poor into self-help groups, training, credit, technology, infrastructure

and marketing. It aims to establish a large number of micro-enterprises

in the rural areas, and provides great emphasis on mobilization of the

poor through formation of self-help groups among potential recipients.

In consolidating numerous schemes including the IRDP and its associated

schemes, the SGSY also aims at integrating the activities of different agencies,

including the district rural development agencies, banks, line departments,

Panchayti Raj institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At

the Block level, identifi cation of key activities in selected villages, verifi cation

of assets and review of the recovery performance are to be undertaken by

Block-level SGSY committees (working under district-level and state-level

committees). The individual benefi ciaries have to be selected in the village

assembly with the involvement of banks and the district administration.

There are also special safeguards under the SGSY for the vulnerable

groups. For example, 50 per cent of the self-help groups to be formed are

to be comprised exclusively of women and 40 per cent of the individual

benefi ciaries are to be women. In addition, scheduled castes and tribes

and the physically disabled are to constitute 50 per cent and 3 per cent,

respectively, of individual benefi ciaries.

Financial assistance under the SGSY to individuals or groups is given

in the form of a subsidy by the government and credit by banks, as was

the case with the IRDP. Banks can classify their lending under the SGSY

as (central bank mandated) priority-sector lending but are liable for all the

risks of these loans.14 The subsidy allowed under the program is uniform at

the rate of 30 per cent of the project cost subject to a ceiling of Rs 7500 per

individual, and 50 per cent of the project cost with a ceiling of Rs 125 000 for

group projects. For irrigation projects there is no ceiling on the subsidy.

Instead of setting annual targets, the SGSY aimed at covering 30 per cent

of below-poverty-line families, as classifi ed by administrative identifi cation,

in fi ve years of operations (1999–2004). As of 31 March, 2001, SGSY

had 1.03 million benefi ciaries with bank credit of Rs 14.5 billion along

with government subsidies of Rs 6.9 billion. By the end of the third year

(March 2002), only 2.56 million of the targeted poor families were covered,

comprising less than 5 per cent of the fi ve-year target. Thus there was

no acceleration in coverage and pace of implementation; the number of

poor families covered by the erstwhile IRDP in the last two years of its

implementation was 17 per cent higher than covered in the fi rst three years

of SGSY implementation (CAG, 2003).