Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY)

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At a national level the subsequent scheme, the JRY, was meant to offer

additional gainful employment to the unemployed and the under-employed

people in rural areas through creation of rural economic infrastructure,

although it fell short of the early achievements of the Maharashtra program.

Employment generation was too inadequate to be meaningful, with an

average of roughly 11 days of employment created per person according to

an evaluation in 1994 (GOI, 2000). The resources available were spread too

thinly to increase coverage without concern for duration of employment.

The asset creation involved high material costs and was not particularly

labor intensive, in fl agrant violation of prescribed norms. Other routine

violations included the use of contractors or middlemen who often hired

outside laborers to lower the wage rates, and used trucks and tractors instead

of labor-intensive techniques. Fudging of muster rolls and measurement

books was thus rampant. Only 17 per cent of jobs generated under the JRY

went to women, against a target ratio of 30 per cent.

According to estimates presented by Dev and Evenson (2003), the cost of

transferring one rupee under the JRY was Rs 2.28. This can be compared to

a cost of Rs 1.85 per rupee transferred under the Maharashtra Employment

Guarantee Scheme, and the high ratio of Rs 6.68 per rupee transferred

under the PDS. In view of its defi ciencies, the JRY was restructured and

transformed in 1999 into a new scheme – the Jawahar Gram Samridhi

Yojana (JGSY) or the Jawahar Rural Advancement Scheme, which explicitly

prioritized asset creation as the primary objective, followed by wage

employment. No evaluation studies of JGSY are available since it lasted

only a short time before being merged into a new scheme, the Sampoorna

Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY).