While the universal coverage of PDS continued, the government

К оглавлению
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 
119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 

introduced two major changes, the fi rst in 1992, in the form of the Revamped

PDS and, subsequently, in 1997 as the Targeted PDS, both innovations being

targeted at poor households. The Revamped PDS relied on geographical

targeting, being introduced with universal coverage in only 1775 blocks in

poor areas – mainly tribal and hilly, drought-prone and remotely located

areas. The Targeted PDS, on the other hand, was implemented in all areas,

but was open only to those identifi ed as below the poverty line. Along with

the introduction of the Targeted PDS, the price differential between PDS

shops and the open market was almost eliminated, effectively providing

subsidized food only to families identifi ed as below the poverty line.7

At the core of the Targeted PDS was division of the entire population

into one of two categories, based on the poverty line defi ned by the Planning

Commission of India for different states for 1993–94. Multiple criteria

were adopted for classifi cation of those households below the poverty

line, which in addition to income also included qualitative parameters

like household occupation, housing conditions, number of earners, land

operated or owned, livestock, and ownership of durables such as a television,

refrigerator, motor cycle, three wheeler, tractor, power tiller, or combined

thresher. The responsibility for undertaking surveys and identifying the

poor lay with the state government. However, the total number of belowthe-

poverty-line families in each state was capped somewhat arbitrarily at

state-level estimates of the poor made by the Planning Commission using

data for 1993–94, adjusted for growth in population in the interim. Hence

the application of the new Targeted PDS system provided the opportunity

to identify poor households and link these exclusively with a range of other

targeted benefi ts.