CONCLUSIONS

К оглавлению
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 
102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 
119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 

What can one conclude from all of this for targeting policy? One clear

implication is that altering the pattern of growth towards sectors with

strong employment effects is likely to have the greatest direct impact on

poverty reduction. Nonetheless, the need to reach the poor directly and to

minimize leakage from and undercoverage of poverty programs remains

critical. Self-targeting initiatives have proved only a modest improvement in

leakage terms and raise issues of undercoverage. Technical improvements,

principally new poverty mapping techniques, offer a means of more sharply

identifying who the poor are, but in the absence of strong governance over

poverty schemes the risk of misuse of funds remains. Whilst the case for

special promotion and protection policies for the poor remains strong,

past errors associated with their implementation and design must not be

forgotten. In the debates of the 1980s more universal schemes were strongly

criticized for their high leakage and their budgetary implications. The more

targeted measures of the 1990s, as we have seen, have cost more modest

amounts relative to the size of government budgets, but their leakage rates

have also been disappointingly high, as have their costs per unit of benefi t

to the poor, where these can be estimated. Poverty-targeting measures

should remain an important component of poverty-reduction strategies,

but improvements in both governance and the technical design of schemes

are needed. This is likely to require a combination of greater focus on broad

targeting (primary education and health care, for example) and selective,

narrowly focused, support for the very poor. Broad targeting measures, such

as expenditure on primary health care, have been shown to reach the poor

disproportionately in a number of countries, and clearly have an important

role. Such measures are not solutions to the short-term problem of providing

protection to the poor, which is why measures like employment creation

schemes and food subsidies have been employed, with the disappointing

results that we have observed. However what works, and what does not, is

likely to vary substantially between countries. In this spirit the following

chapters discuss in depth the experiences in our case-study countries.