Index

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119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 

ACC/SCN 180

activity, targeting by 7–8, 24–5, 34–5,

47, 50, 227–8

simulations for Philippines 25,

233–42

administrative capacity 127 –8

administrative costs 5, 7, 26–7, 50–51,

53, 56, 57, 171, 228, 232–3, 252

administrative identifi cation 14–15,

50–53, 63, 73

Affordable Medicine for All (GMA)

program 23–4

Africa

micro-fi nance in 249

stunting rate in 180

age of household head 190, 191

Agricultural Bank of China 140, 150,

151–2, 153

agricultural research and development

28, 170

agricultural sector

expenditures on 203, 205, 206, 209,

210, 211, 213, 215

poverty in 84, 86, 123, 225

productivity enhancement in 195

reforms in 228, 234–5, 237, 238–9,

240, 241

agricultural terms of trade 234, 237

Akhmadi, B. 132

Akita, T. 100

Alatas, V. 96, 99, 100, 131

Amin, S. 256, 161

Andhra Pradesh (India) 17, 23, 59–60

Anhui (PRC) 138, 143, 145, 149, 163,

164, 165, 167

Annapoorna Scheme 48

Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) 48

Aquino, Corazon 24, 228

Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal- 17, 229

Asian Development Bank 120, 147

Asian Financial Crisis, impact of

on Indonesia 1, 13, 15, 18, 21, 23,

27, 79–88, 89, 92, 101, 106, 107,

113–15, 116–17, 120

on Philippines 221

on Thailand 1, 189, 192, 199, 205

asymmetric information problem 47,

50, 74

Azis, I. 96

Badan Perencana Pembangunan

Nasional (BAPPENAS) 93, 105,

110

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) 81, 82, 85,

89, 90, 91, 96, 98, 99, 106, 110,

126, 130

Badan Urusan Logistik 109

Bali 85, 89, 97

Balisacan, A.M. 19, 21, 24, 25, 30, 219,

220, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 230,

231, 232, 234, 237, 243

Bangkok 190, 192, 196, 205, 206, 207,

208, 209, 211

Bangladesh, micro-fi nance in 247, 248,

254, 256, 257, 258–9, 261, 262–4

Bangladesh Institute of Development

Studies (BIDS) 258, 259

Bangladesh Rural Advancement

Committee (BRAC) 254, 256, 257,

258, 262, 263

Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) 254,

256, 258, 261

BAPPENAS, see Badan Perencana

Pembangunan Nasional

(BAPPENAS)

barangays 229, 230, 236

Bardhan, P. 225

Barnes, D. 243

Bautista, V.A. 231

Bavadam, L. 56

Beegle, K. 82, 130

Beijing 137, 148

269

Index

270 Index

benefi t–cost ratios 236, 238, 239,

240–42, 252

benefi t incidence analysis 24

Besley, T. 2

Bhalla, S. 219

Bicol (Philippines) 224, 225, 226, 233

Bihar (India) 24, 62

bilateral development agencies 140

birth certifi cates 69

BKKBN (National Family Planning

Coordinating Board of Indonesia)

15, 23, 89, 90, 94, 95, 107, 108,

109, 110, 111, 122, 125, 126–7

Block Panchayats 58

Booth, A. 79, 80

BP3 contribution 115

BPS, see Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS)

BRAC, see Bangladesh Rural

Advancement Committee

(BRAC)

BRI, see Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI)

bribes 56, 62, 73

broad targeting, see activity, targeting

by

budgetary funds, in PRC 13, 140, 141,

155–6, 165–6

Bulog, see National Logistics Agency

(Bulog), Indonesia

Bureau of the Budget, Bangkok 199,

200, 202, 203, 214, 215, 216

Burgess, R. 263

CAG 52, 53, 57, 62, 63, 65, 67, 76

Cagayan Valley (Philippines) 225, 226,

233

Calandrino, M. 180

calorifi c intake, minimum 173–4, 180

Cameron, L. 92, 113, 118

Cao, H. 153

capability deprivation 87

Care for the Poor (Lingap Para sa

Mahihirap) program 19, 229, 232

CARP, see Comprehensive Agrarian

Reform Program (CARP)

cash transfers to poor families 198

Central Asia, micro-fi nance in 249

Central Java province (Indonesia) 21,

99, 100

Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)

35, 41–7, 71, 73

Chalongphob, S. 204, 205, 211

Chen, M.A. 255, 260

Chen, S. 178, 183

child mortality rates 38, 181; see also

infant mortality rates

China, see People’s Republic of China

(PRC)

China Nutrition Association 173

China Rural Poverty Survey 180

Chongqing (PRC) 138, 145, 149, 166,

167

chronic poverty 87, 179–80, 242

micro-fi nance and 250–52

CIDSS program, see Comprehensive

and Integrated Delivery of Social

Services (CIDSS) program

CIMU 115, 116, 118, 119, 122, 123

clothing 90, 229

Coleman, B.E. 254, 255, 259–60, 265

communications networks 225

Communist Party 142

community dimension 193, 194, 195

community empowerment program

(PDM-DKE) 94, 105–6, 129

community health centres 95, 120–23

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform

Program (CARP) 238–9, 240, 241

Comprehensive and Integrated

Delivery of Social Services

(CIDSS) program 228–9, 231–2

Comprehensive Rural Employment

Scheme, see Sampoorna Grameen

Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)

compulsory education 112

construction sector, poverty in 86

consumer price index, rural 174, 177,

180

consumption expenditure

food, at poverty line 173–4, 176–8,

180

growth of 168, 221, 223, 224

non-food, at poverty line 173, 175,

177

consumption smoothing 251, 261

contractors, use of 17–18, 56, 57,

59–60, 67

Cordillera (Philippines) 233

core poor 251–2, 264

Cornia, G. 2

Cororaton, C. 243

Index 271

costs of participation 4–5, 7

credit subsidies 17

in India 18, 24, 61–2, 63, 72

in Indonesia 13, 21, 96, 105

in Philippines 24, 228, 229, 231

in PRC 13, 19, 24, 27–8, 140, 141,

150–53, 165–6, 171

in Thailand 13–14, 16, 198, 199, 200,

201, 213

see also micro-fi nance

CSS, see Centrally Sponsored Schemes

(CSS)

Daley, A. 95, 101, 118, 131

Datt, G. 30, 55

David, C.C. 233

David, W.P. 239, 244

day care centres 229

Deaton, A. 29, 37

Debt Moratorium for Smallholding

Farmers program 201, 202

decentralization 73, 127–8, 194, 195–7

Deolalikar, A.B. 243

depth of poverty 251

in Indonesia 84, 87–8

measurement of 8, 11–12, 84

see also poverty gap

in Philippines 21, 221, 223, 224

in Thailand 188, 189

deregulation 80, 221

Desert Development Program (DDP)

48

Deshingkar, P. 18, 23, 59, 60, 76

Dev, M. 26, 53, 55, 56

Dhanani, S. 131

Direk, P. 204, 205, 211

disabled persons 63, 65, 148

distribution systems, food 128, 130

distributional effects of general

government expenditure in

Thailand 204–11

distributional effects of povertyrelated

government expenditure in

Thailand 211–17

Dollar, D. 31, 219

DomDom, A. 243

DPAP, see Drought Prone Areas

Program (DPAP)

Drought Prone Areas Program

(DPAP) 48, 53, 69–70

Duong, Ph. B. 255, 260

EAS, see Employment Assurance

Scheme (EAS)

East Timor 97

Eastern Europe, micro-fi nance in 249

Eastern Indonesia 85, 89, 97

economic entities, subsidized loans to

150–51

economic growth, and poverty 25–6,

71, 79–80, 87, 136, 172, 192–3,

217, 219–27, 234, 235, 237, 242

Edillon, R.G. 244

Education Loans Program, Thailand

13–14, 198, 199, 200, 201

education programs 7, 24–5, 47

in India 49

in Indonesia 22, 27, 92, 95, 104,

112–20, 129, 130

in Philippines 229

in PRC 28, 169, 170

in Thailand 13–14, 16, 194, 198, 199,

200, 201, 203, 205, 206, 208,

209, 210, 211, 213, 215

educational attainment, level of 186,

192, 226, 227, 234, 235, 237,

239–40, 241, 242

Eight-Seven Poverty Reduction Plan

139, 142, 146

El Niño 221

elasticity of expenditure benefi t with

respect to income 204–5

elasticity of poverty incidence 25, 26

elasticity of provincial expenditure

with respect to provincial income

208–11

elections 105, 197

electricity, gas and water sector,

poverty in 86

electricity supplies 16, 25, 79, 169, 170,

197, 234, 235, 236–8, 240, 241,

242

Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)

17, 23, 26, 48, 57–8

employment creation programs

in India 17–18, 23, 26, 48, 49, 53,

54–65, 72

in Indonesia 18, 22, 23, 80, 92, 95,

101–6, 127

in PRC 19

272 Index

Employment Guarantee Scheme

(EGS) 17, 26, 54–6

empowerment 38, 228

Engel coeffi cient 173–4

errors of targeting 17–25, 156–61;

see also leakage (type 2 error);

targeting count gap (TCG);

targeting

income gap (TIG); undercoverage

(type 1 error)

Estrada, Joseph 16, 229, 232

Evenson, R. 26, 53, 56

examination scores 113

expenditure, general government,

distributional effects of, in

Thailand 204–11

expenditure, poverty-related

in India 12–13, 34–5, 43–7, 48–9,

71–2

in Indonesia 13, 93, 94–5, 96, 105,

115, 120

in Philippines 14, 231

in PRC 13, 140–41, 171, 172

in Thailand 13–14, 198–203

distributional effects of 211–17

externalities 225

fair price shops 59

family planning services 90, 95, 120

Fan, S. 28, 169

Fane, G. 95, 101, 118, 131

FAO, see Food and Agriculture

Organization (FAO)

farm size, see land holdings, size of

Farrington, J. 35, 42, 46

female-headed households 123

Feridhanusetyawan, T. 80, 93, 131

Fernando, N. 250

fertilizer subsidies 12–13, 47, 49, 50

fi eld visits 55, 130

Fields, G.S. 226

Finance Commission of India 41

fi nancial services sector, poverty in 84,

86

Food and Agriculture Organization

(FAO) 180

food consumption bundle, at poverty

line 173–4, 176–8, 180

food-for-education programs 262, 263

food-for-work programs 8

in Bangladesh 262, 263

in India 17–18, 23, 51, 54, 56, 58–61,

74

in PRC 13, 140, 141, 153–5, 165–6,

169

food subsidies 8

in India 14–15, 17–18, 36, 45, 47,

51–2, 53, 72

in Indonesia 18, 21, 22, 92, 94, 104,

106–12, 127, 128–9, 130

in Philippines 14, 26–7, 230–31,

232–3

Foster, J. 243

Frankenberg, T. 82, 130

freed bonded labour 65

fuel subsidies 45, 51, 120

Fujian (PRC) 138, 143, 145, 146, 149,

163, 164, 165, 167

Fujita, K. 265

Gaiha, R. 55

Gandhi, Indira 42, 71

Gansu (PRC) 137, 138, 142, 143, 144,

149, 163, 164, 166, 167

Gardiner, P. 82

general government expenditure in

Thailand, distributional effects of

204–11

geographic poverty traps 220, 234, 237

Gertler, P. 256, 261

Gini coeffi cient 71, 193, 221–2, 223,

224

GMA, see Affordable Medicine for All

(GMA) program

GOI 43, 45, 46, 52, 56, 57, 76

Golden Jubilee Rural Self

Employment Program, see Swarn

Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana

(SGSY)

grain production 16, 27, 139, 162, 163,

170

Gram Panchayat 59, 66, 68

Gram Sabha 59, 66

Grameen Bank, Bangladesh 254, 256,

257, 258, 262, 263–4

Grass Roots Economic and Social

Security Program 201–2

group lending 251, 252

growth, see economic growth, and

poverty

Index 273

Guangdong (PRC) 138, 142, 143, 145,

146, 149, 163, 168, 178

Guangxi (PRC) 137, 138, 142, 143,

145, 149, 163, 166, 167, 168, 178

Guizhou (PRC) 137, 138, 143, 145,

146, 149, 163, 164, 166, 168

Gujurat (India) 26, 57, 70

Hagul, P. 113, 114, 119

Hainan (PRC) 138, 142, 143, 145, 149,

166, 167

Haryana (India) 26, 57

Hastuti, A. 18, 110, 111, 132

Hayami, Y. 221

headcount ratio 8–11, 12

in India 8, 9, 36–7, 71

in Indonesia 9, 80, 81–2, 83

by region 82, 84, 85

by sector 84, 86

in Philippines 8, 10, 221, 223

by region 21, 224–6

rural and urban 224, 225

in PRC 8, 11, 136, 175–6

alternative estimates of 178–9

calculation of offi cial poverty line

173–6

potential bias in offi cial estimates

8, 176–8

by region 137–8

urban 136, 181–2

relationship between growth and 25,

26, 71, 80, 136, 192–3

in Thailand 9, 187, 188, 189, 192–3,

217

by age of household head 190,

191

by education level 192

by household size 189–90

by region 189, 190, 205, 207–8,

209, 212–16

rural and urban 187–8

by size of land holdings 191–2

Health Cards 22, 23, 27, 103, 104,

121–4, 198, 199, 201, 202

health care programs 24–5, 50

in India 45

in Indonesia 22, 23, 27, 92, 95, 103,

104, 120–25, 129, 130

in Philippines 23–4

in Thailand 20, 194, 195, 197, 198,

199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 205,

206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213,

215

health centres 95, 120–23

health insurance 195, 197

health outcomes 180–81, 259

Health Security For All program 201,

202

Hebei (PRC) 137, 143, 144, 146, 148,

163, 167

Heilongjiang (PRC) 137, 143, 144, 149,

163, 165, 167

Hemming, R. 40

Henan (PRC) 137, 143, 144, 148, 154,

163, 164, 165, 167

Hentschel, J. 30

Hill, H. 79, 220

hospitals 121

household size, poverty related to 186,

189–90, 227

housing programs

in India 48, 53, 65–7

in Thailand 199, 200, 201

Hubei (PRC) 138, 143, 145, 149, 163,

164, 166, 167

Hulme, D. 252, 253, 254, 258, 265

Hunan (PRC) 138, 143, 145, 149, 152,

163, 164, 166, 167

100 Village Survey 82, 91–2, 103, 108,

118

IAY, see Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)

identifi cation of the poor 14–17

in India 14–15, 50–53, 73–4

in Indonesia 15, 88–92, 94–5, 96,

111, 117, 126–7

in Philippines 16–17

in PRC 15–16, 142–7

in Thailand 16

IDT, see Inpres Desa Tertinggal (IDT)

Ifugao (Philippines) 238

Igaya, G.A. 231

Ilocos (Philippines) 226

IMF, see International Monetary

Fund (IMF)

IMI 68

import restrictions 230

incentive effects 5, 7

274 Index

income poverty elasticity 25–6, 219,

235

income taxes 204

India

Constitution of 35, 40–41

elasticity of poverty incidence in 25

MDG related human development

indicators in 37–9

Offi cial Development Assistance

to 45

poverty headcount in 8, 9, 36–7, 71

poverty targeting in Ch. 2

Centrally Sponsored Schemes

(CSS) 35, 41–7, 71, 73

conclusions 72–5

cost-effectiveness of 26

errors of 23, 24, 51, 60, 61, 64, 67,

72, 73, 74

expenditure on 12–13, 34–5, 43–7,

48–9, 71–2

fi scal context of 40–43

identifi cation of the poor 14–15,

50–53, 73–4

impacts on poverty 35–6, 53–70

macro developments and fi nancial

stability 71–2

malpractice in 17–18, 56, 57,

59–61, 62, 63–4, 66–7, 70, 72,

73, 74

micro-fi nance programs 248, 254,

255, 258, 260–61

trends in poverty 36–9

indicator, targeting by 8, 14, 50

in India 52, 73

in Indonesia 89–90, 94, 95, 126–7

in Philippines 225–7, 228–9

in PRC 16, 147, 148

Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) 48, 53, 65–7

Indonesia

decentralization program in 127–8,

196

income poverty elasticity in 25, 219

poverty gap in 84, 87

poverty headcount in 9, 80, 81–2, 83

by region 82, 84, 85

by sector 84, 86

poverty pre and post the Crisis

80–88

poverty targeting in Ch. 3

conclusions 125–30

cost-effectiveness of 27

errors of 15, 21, 22, 23, 103, 108,

110–12, 117–18, 122–3, 125,

127

expenditure on 13, 93, 94–5, 96,

105, 115, 120

identifi cation of the poor 15,

88–92, 94–5, 96, 111, 117,

126–7

malpractice in 18, 102, 103, 105,

129

micro-fi nance programs in 248,

254, 256, 258, 261

poverty mapping used in 126

targeted poverty programs 92–105

Sixth Five Year Development Plan

(REPELITA VI) 79

squared poverty gap in 84, 87

infant mortality rates 37, 38, 79, 181

infl ation rates

Indonesia 81

Philippines 222–3

PRC 140

poverty line adjusted for 174, 177,

179

Inner Mongolia (PRC) 137, 138, 143,

144, 146, 149, 163, 164, 165, 167

Inpres Desa Tertinggal (IDT) 13, 15,

21, 79, 93, 94, 96–101

insurance 65, 195, 197

Integrated Rural Development

Program (IRDP) 24, 61–2, 72

Integrated Wastelands Development

Program (IWDP) 48

interest-free loans 13–14

interest rates 251, 252

International Fund for Agricultural

Development (IFAD) 140

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

93, 199

Irawan, P. 108

IRDP, see Integrated Rural

Development Program (IRDP)

Irian Jaya (now Papua) 97

irrigation 45, 50, 63, 170, 225, 234,

235, 237, 239, 240, 241

Islam, I. 131

Izumida, Y. 255, 260

Jakarta (Indonesia) 128, 130

Index 275

Jalan, J. 31, 161, 168, 170, 171, 178,

180, 225

Jaminan Pelayanan Kesehatan

Masyarakat (JPKM) 120

Jaring Pengaman Sosial Bidang

Kesehatan (JPS-BK) program 95,

120–25, 129

Java 85, 89, 97, 99, 102, 108, 116, 119

Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana

(JGSY) 48, 56, 58

Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) 26, 54,

55, 56

Jawahar Rural Advancement Scheme,

see Jawahar Gram Samridhi

Yojana (JGSY)

JGSY, see Jawahar Gram Samridhi

Yojana (JGSY)

Jharkand (India) 24, 62

Jiang, Z. 154, 155

Jiangsu (PRC) 138, 149

Jiangxi (PRC) 138, 143, 145, 149, 152,

163, 165, 167, 178

Jilin (PRC) 137, 143, 144, 149, 163,

165, 167

jingji shiti (economic entities),

subsidized loans to 150–51

job creation programs 199, 200, 201

Johnson, C. 18, 23, 59, 60, 76

Jones, G. 113, 114, 117, 119

Joshi, D.K. 75

JPKM (Jaminan Pelayanan Kesehatan

Masyarakat) 120

JPS-BK program 95, 120–25, 129

JRY, see Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY)

Kaboski, J. 255, 261–2

KALAHI-CIDSS program 229–30

KALAHI program 229

Kalimantan (Indonesia) 85

Kanbur, R. 2

Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan

(KALAHI) program 229

Karat, B. 75

Kelompok Masyarakat (Pokmas) 98

Keluarga pra-sejahtera (KPS) families,

see pre-prosperous families

(Keluarga pra-sejahtera – KPS)

Keluarga sejahtera 1 (KS-1) families,

see level 1 prosperous families

(Keluarga sejahtera 1 – KS-1)

kerosene subsidies 45, 51

kesejahteraan 89

Khan, A. 177, 178, 179, 182

Khandker, S. 247, 254, 257, 258–9,

262–3, 265, 266

KPS ALEK families 89–90, 108, 109,

110, 111

Kraay, A. 31, 219

KS-1 ALEK families 89–90, 108, 109,

110, 111

Kusumastuti, S. 132

labour tax (yiwugong) 154–5

land holdings, size of 186, 191–2, 221,

234, 235–6, 237, 258, 259

Lapenu, C. 248, 265

Lardy, N. 167

Latin America

micro-fi nance in 249

stunting rate in 180

latrines 66, 67, 229

Le An county (PRC) 152

Leading Group for Poverty Reduction

(LGPR) 140, 141, 142, 146, 147,

150, 151–2

leakage (type 2 error) 1, 2, 4, 28–9, 228

in Bangladesh 262

in India 51, 60, 61, 64, 67, 72, 73, 74

in Indonesia 15, 21, 103, 108,

110–12, 117–18, 122, 125, 127

from micro-fi nance programs 24,

252, 262

in Philippines 27, 232, 233, 238, 239

political support for programs with

6–7

in PRC 20, 158–9, 160, 167, 171

relation between administrative costs

and 5–6, 26

level 1 prosperous families (Keluarga

sejahtera 1 – KS-1) 89–90, 107

LGPR, see Leading Group for Poverty

Reduction (LGPR)

Li, S. 178, 179

Li, W. 139, 180

Li, Z. 140

Liaoning (PRC) 137, 143, 144, 149,

163, 165, 167

Lingap Para sa Mahihirap (Care for the

Poor) program 19, 229, 232

Lipton, M. 167

276 Index

literacy 37, 38, 74, 79, 177, 229

Living Standard Measurement Criteria

in Thailand 197–8

local accountability 195, 196

local knowledge 89, 117

location, targeting by 8, 50

in India 51

in Indonesia 21–2, 94, 95, 96, 126

in Philippines 14, 16–17, 21, 26,

225–7, 232

in PRC 8, 15–16, 20–21, 136,

139–40, 172

in Thailand 16, 19–20

Long, M. 39, 61, 72

LP3ES and MENPHOR 109

Luzon (Philippines) 226

Madhya Pradesh 70

Mahapatra, R. 70

Maharashtra Employment Guarantee

Act (1977) 54, 56

Maharashtra Employment Guarantee

Scheme 17, 26, 54–6

MAKER 24, 62

malnutrition 38, 180–81

malpractice 17–19

in India 17–18, 56, 57, 59–61, 62,

63–4, 66–7, 70, 72, 73, 74

in Indonesia 18, 102, 103, 105, 129

in Philippines 19

in PRC 19, 152

Manasan, R. 27, 231, 233

manufacturing sector, poverty in 84, 86

marginal social benefi t 6

marginal tax rates 5

Martin, I. 265

maternal mortality rates 37, 38, 181

Maxwell, J. 18, 110, 111, 132

McCulloch, N. 180

means testing 198

measuring poverty 8–12

Medhi, K.M. 187, 204, 218

medicines 14, 23–4, 120, 124, 230

Medium-term Philippine Development

Plan (1999–2004) 229

Metro Manila (Philippines) 26, 223,

224, 225, 226, 233

Meyer, R.L. 29, 247, 249, 260, 265

Microbanking Bulletin 249

micro-fi nance Ch. 7

conclusions 264–5

cost-effectiveness of 248, 252, 253,

261–4, 265

features of micro-fi nance in Asia

248–50

fi nancial sustainability of 264

impact on poverty 248, 253–61

institutional forms of 249–50, 261–2

malpractice in 19

methodological diffi culties

associated with 247, 264

poverty and 250–53

targeting effectiveness of 24, 153,

248, 249, 252–3

Middle East, micro-fi nance in 249

midwives 95, 120–22, 125

migrant labour 60

millennium development goals

(MDGs) 37–9

Mindanao (Philippines) 224–5, 226,

233

minimum nutritional standard 173–4,

180, 197, 229

mining and quarrying sector, poverty

in 86

Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s

Republic of China 170

Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA) of the

People’s Republic of China 149

Ministry of Finance of the People’s

Republic of China 140, 152, 155

Ministry of Health of the People’s

Republic of China 180–81

minority communities 16, 137, 142,

158–9, 161–2, 163, 164, 165, 177,

195

MkNelly, B. 254, 259, 260

Mokoro Ltd 206, 207, 209

monitoring and reporting procedures

55, 129–30, 154, 195, 198

Morduch, J. 24, 258, 259, 265

mortality rates 37, 38, 79, 181

Mosley, P. 252, 253, 254, 258

multi-stage targeting 230

narrow targeting 227–8

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

of the People’s Republic of China

137, 145, 146, 161, 164, 168,

173–6, 177, 178, 179, 182

Index 277

National Economic and Social

Development Board of Thailand

187, 188, 192, 193, 197, 198, 202,

236

National Family Planning

Coordinating Board of Indonesia,

see BKKBN (National Family

Planning Coordinating Board of

Indonesia)

National Food Authority (NFA) of

the Philippines 14, 26–7, 230–31,

232–3

National Logistics Agency (Bulog),

Indonesia 107, 109, 110, 127

National Old Age Pension Scheme

(NOAPS) 18, 53, 67–9

National Planning and Development

Commission of the People’s

Republic of China 140

National Rural Employment Program

54, 55, 65

National Slum Development Program

(NSDP) 48

National Social Assistance Program

(NSAP) 48, 67

National Statistical Offi ce of Thailand

217

nationalization 42, 71

Nayak, R. 17, 43, 59, 70, 76

NBS, see National Bureau of Statistics

(NBS) of the People’s Republic of

China

Neglected Village Program, Indonesia,

see Inpres Desa Tertinggal (IDT)

neglected village status, determination

of 98–100

New Entrepreneur Promotion program

201, 202

NFA, see National Food Authority

(NFA) of the Philippines

NGO involvement 64, 74, 108, 129

in micro-fi nance programs 249, 250,

255, 261

Ningxia (PRC) 137, 138, 142, 143, 144,

149, 155, 163, 164, 166, 167

non-government agencies, see NGO

involvement

non-performing assets 72

non-wage benefi ts 182

North Africa, micro-fi nance in 249

NSAP, see National Social Assistance

Program (NSAP)

nutrition programs in Indonesia 95,

120, 121–2, 125

nutritional outcomes 180–81

nutritional standard, minimum 173–4,

180, 197, 229

Offi ce of the Leading Group for

Economic Development in Poor

Areas 143

Offi cial Development Assistance to

India 45

Olken, B. 109

One Tambon One Product program

201, 202

OPK Program 94, 106–7, 128–9

opportunity cost of capital 28

opportunity dimension 193–5

optimal degree of targeting 5–6, 7, 26

ORG 69

Orissa (India) 68

outpatient care 124

Padat Karya Desa Program (PKDP)

102

padat karya programs 23, 95, 102–3,

104, 106

Panchayti Raj institutions 58, 60, 62

Pande, R. 263

Pangestu, M. 96

Park, A. 19, 20, 27, 153, 154, 156, 159,

160, 161, 162, 163, 167, 170, 171,

176, 178, 255, 261

Patten, R.H. 265

PDI 56

PDM-DKE program 94, 105–6, 129

pension schemes

in India 18, 53, 67–9

in Thailand 195

PEO 57

People’s Bank program 201, 202

People’s Republic of China

elasticity of poverty incidence in 25

income poverty elasticity in 26

nutritional outcomes in 180–81

poverty headcount in 8, 11, 136,

175–6

alternative estimates of 178–9

278 Index

calculation of offi cial poverty line

173–6

potential bias in offi cial estimates

8, 176–8

by region 137–9

urban 136, 181–2

poverty targeting in Ch. 4

conclusions 172

empirical assessment of 20–21,

156–67

errors of 20–21, 24, 156–61, 167,

171, 172

expenditure on 13, 140–41, 171,

172

identifi cation of the poor 15–16,

142–7

income effects of 27–8, 167–72

malpractice in 19, 152

micro-fi nance programs 19, 153,

248, 255

overall effectiveness of 167–72

at project level 150–56

regional targeting used in 15–16,

136, 139–40

sources of funds 140–41

urban poverty reduction 148–9

Pernia, E.M. 25, 219, 234, 237, 243

Philippines

elasticity of poverty incidence in 25

expenditure distribution in 221–2,

223, 224

growth and poverty in 25–6, 219–27,

234, 235, 237, 242

income poverty elasticity in 25, 219,

235

infl ation rate in 222–3

poverty gap in 21, 221, 223

poverty headcount in 8, 10, 221, 223

by region 21, 224–6

rural and urban 224, 225

poverty targeting in Ch. 6

broad targeting experiments 25,

233–42

conclusions 242–3

cost-effectiveness of 26–7, 220,

225, 232–3

errors of 21, 23–4, 25, 27, 232,

233, 238, 239

expenditure on 14, 231

identifi cation of the poor 16–17

malpractice in 19

targeted poverty programs 227–22

squared poverty gap in 221, 223

Pichit, L. 204

Pingjiang county (PRC) 152

Pitt, M.M. 254, 257, 258, 259

Piza, S.A. 226, 227

placement bias 258

Planning Commission of India 41, 43,

52, 56, 57, 62

Podes surveys 94, 96, 98

Pokmas (Kelompok Masyarakat) 98

political constraints 167

political economy variables 234, 237

political institutions, reform of 112

poor county programs in the People’s

Republic of China 15–16, 140,

142–6, 154, 155, 172

empirical assessment of 156–67

accuracy of poor county

designation 20–21, 156–61

allocation of poverty funds 164–7

determinants of poor county

designation 161–4

overall effectiveness of 167–72

poor villages, see village programs

post offi ces 128

Poverty Alleviation Program 198, 199,

200

poverty gap 11–12, 251

in Indonesia 84, 87

in Philippines 21, 221, 223, 224

in Thailand 188, 189

poverty headcount, see headcount

ratio

poverty line 2–5, 8

in Bangladesh 261

in India 24, 36, 37, 41, 47, 50, 51, 52,

62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 73–4

in Indonesia 80, 81–2, 87–8, 90

in Philippines 236

poverty gap in relation to 11, 188

in PRC 8, 20, 24, 136, 137, 139, 142,

146, 148, 158–9, 160, 173–8,

179, 180, 181

relative 158, 159, 160

squared poverty gap in relation to

11, 188

in Thailand 187, 188

urban 136, 148, 181, 182

World Bank 37, 182

Index 279

poverty mapping 14, 17, 29, 126, 230

poverty share 187

poverty targeting

classifi cation of measures for 7–8

compared with universalistic

approach 2–7

cost-effectiveness of 25–7

defi nition of 1

errors of 17–25, 156–61

see also leakage (type 2 error);

targeting count gap (TCG);

targeting income gap (TIG);

undercoverage (type 1 error)

expenditure on 12–14

identifi cation of the poor 14–17

income effects of 27–8, 167–72

measuring poverty 8–12

optimal degree of 5–6, 7, 26

see also under names of individual

countries, e.g. India; People’s

Republic of China (PRC)

power supplies 16, 25, 50, 79, 169, 170,

197, 234, 235, 236–8, 240, 241, 242

Pradhan, M. 23, 84, 86, 121, 122, 123,

124, 132

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana

48

Pranee, T. 204

PRC, see People’s Republic of China

(PRC)

pre-prosperous families (Keluarga prasejahtera

– KPS) 89–90, 107, 122

pregnant women 22, 104, 120, 125; see

also midwives

Pritchett, L. 128

private schools 119

privatization 80

provincial size 19, 212–13

public accountability 129

Public Distribution System (PDS)

26, 36, 51–2, 53, 56; see also

Revamped Public Distribution

System;

Targeted Public Distribution System

(TPDS)

publicity campaigns 109, 112, 129

Punjab 53

Qinghai (PRC) 137, 138, 142, 143, 144,

149, 163, 164, 166, 167

Rajasthan (India) 70

Ramos, Fidel 21, 228

Ranis, G. 221

Rao, G. 42

Rao, H. 70

Raskin Program 94, 109–12, 128–9

rate of return on poverty investment

27–8, 168, 171

Ravallion, M. 30, 31, 55, 161, 167, 168,

170, 171, 178, 180, 183, 225

REECS and Meganomics 243

regional price differences 177–8

regional targeting, see location,

targeting by

religious schools 119

Ren, C. 19, 153, 255, 261

reporting procedures 130, 195

retail price index 174, 177

Revamped Public Distribution System

51

revolutionary bases 142, 159, 161–2,

163, 164, 165

Reyes, C.M. 244

rice subsidies 8

in India 17–18, 51

in Indonesia 18, 21, 22, 92, 94, 104,

106–12, 127, 128–9, 130

in Philippines 14, 26–7, 230–31,

232–3

risk aversion 251–2, 259

Riskin, C. 8, 177, 178, 179, 182

roads 16, 25, 28, 45–6, 79, 152, 153,

154, 170, 200, 206, 225, 234, 235,

237, 238, 240, 241, 242

Roumasset, J. 230, 232, 233

Rozelle, S. 27, 152, 168, 169

Rural Housing Scheme, India, see

Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)

Rural Landless Employment Program

54, 55, 65

Rural Poverty Monitoring Survey,

PRC 164

Rutherford, S. 250

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana

(SGRY) 48, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58–60

Sangli (India) 54

Sarpanch (village head) 68

savings facilities 250, 251, 262

Saxena, N.C. 35, 42, 46

280 Index

scheduled castes and tribes 39, 49, 59,

63, 65

Scholarships and Grants Program

(SGP) 95, 104, 112, 115–20, 129

scholarships, in Indonesia 22, 27, 95,

104, 115–19, 128, 129

school attendance rates 16, 100, 147

school dropout rates 113, 118–19

school enrollment rates 38, 79, 95,

112–13, 114, 118–19

school fees 114–15, 116, 119

school grants 95, 115, 119–20

school lunch programs 198, 200, 201

schooling, average years of 234, 235,

237, 239–40, 241, 242

Schreiner, M. 263

security 193, 194, 195, 229

Self Employed Women’s Association

(SEWA) bank 255, 260–61

self-employment schemes 18, 48, 53,

61–5, 72, 96

self-help groups 62–3, 64, 74

self-targeting programs 8, 29, 47

in India 17, 51, 57, 59, 60, 74

in Indonesia 23, 95, 102–3, 127

in Philippines 23–4, 230–31

in Thailand 201

Sen, A.K. 87

services sector, poverty in 86

Setto, J. 100

severity of poverty

in Indonesia 84, 87–8

measurement of 11, 84

see also squared poverty gap

in Philippines 221, 223

in Thailand 188, 189

SGRY, see Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar

Yojana (SGRY)

SGSY, see Swarn Jayanti Gram

Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)

Shaanxi (PRC) 27, 137, 138, 142, 143,

144, 149, 163, 166, 168–9

Shandong (PRC) 137, 143, 144, 146,

148, 155, 163, 164, 165

Shanghai (PRC) 138, 149

Shanxi (PRC) 137, 138, 143, 144, 149,

163, 165, 167

Shariff, A. 13, 44, 75

shelter 229; see also housing programs

Shinawatra, Thaksin 197, 201

Sichuan (PRC) 27, 137, 138, 142, 143,

145, 149, 155, 163, 164, 166, 167,

169, 180

Singh, N. 42

Small Borrower Accounts 72

SMERU (Social Monitoring and Early

Response Unit) Research Institute

81–2, 83, 84, 87, 106, 108, 113,

118, 122, 132

smokeless stoves 66, 67

SMP Terbuka 118

Snodgrass, D. 255, 260

social discount rate 236

social exclusion 194

Social Reform Agenda, Philippines

21, 228

Social Safety Net Adjustment Loan

93, 106

social services expenditure, Thailand

209, 210, 211

social workers 17, 229

Soelaksono, B. 122, 124, 133

Southern Tagalog (Philippines) 233

Sparrow, R. 91, 117, 119, 132

Special Assistance for Schools

(Bantuan Khusus Sekolah)

program 120

Special Assistance for Students

(Bantuan Khusus Murid) program

119–20

squared poverty gap 11, 12

in Indonesia 84, 87

in Philippines 221, 223

in Thailand 188, 189

Sri Lanka, micro-fi nance programs in

254

Srivastava, D.K. 35

Srivastava, P. 39, 61, 72, 75

SSB, see State Statistical Bureau (SSB)

stakeholder participation 70, 229

State Statistical Bureau (SSB) 143, 145

Stern, N. 26

Stewart, F. 2, 221

student loans, see Education Loans

Program, Thailand

stunted growth 180–81

Subbarao, K. 26, 232, 233

subsidized loans, see credit subsidies

Suharto, Thojib N.J. 93

Suichuan county (PRC) 152

Index 281

Sulawesi (Indonesia) 85

Sumarto, S. 21, 22, 87, 97, 98, 99, 100,

101, 103, 104, 108, 117, 122, 131

Sumatra 85, 97, 102

Suryahadi, A. 30, 82, 83, 87, 92, 108,

126, 132

SUSENAS (National Socio-Economic

Survey) 21, 23, 81–2, 85, 90–92,

95, 102, 103, 106, 108, 110, 113,

117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125,

126

sustainable development 229

Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana

(SGSY) 48, 53, 61, 62–5, 72

Swisher, G. 102

Tambon Administrative Councils

196–7

Tan, E. 244

Tang, P. 173, 174, 175

Targeted Public Distribution System

(TPDS) 48, 51–2, 53, 73

targeting count error (TCE) 159–60,

161

targeting count gap (TCG) 20, 156–9

targeting income error (TIE) 160, 161

targeting income gap (TIG) 156, 158,

160

targeting measures, classifi cation of

7–8

in Indian context 47, 50–51

targeting rank error (TRE) 160, 161

targeting ratio 2, 3, 22, 103, 104, 108

tax incidence 204

TCG, see targeting count gap (TCG)

Thai Rak Thai Party 201

Thailand

Constitution of 195, 197

distributional effects of general

government expenditure in

204–11

elasticity of poverty incidence in 25

poverty gap in 188, 189

poverty headcount in 9, 187, 188,

189, 192–3, 217

by age of household head 190,

191

by education level 192

by household size 189–90

by region 189, 190, 205, 207–8,

209, 212–16

rural and urban 187–8

by size of land holdings 191–2

poverty targeting in Ch. 5

conclusions 217

decentralized approach to 194,

195–7

distributional effects of

government poverty-related

expenditure 211–17

errors of 19–20

expenditure on 13–14, 198–203,

211–17

goals of 197–8

identifi cation of the poor 16

micro-fi nance programs 248, 254,

255, 259–60, 261–2

poverty reduction philosophy

193–8

squared poverty gap in 188, 189

Tianjing (PRC) 137, 148

Tibet (PRC) 138, 143, 145, 149

Tienchai, C. 204

Tim Dampak Krisis 109

toilet facilities 66, 67, 229

Tong, Z. 167

Townsend, R. 255, 261–2

trade, hotel and restaurant sector,

poverty in 84, 86

training opportunities 197, 229

transitory poverty 139, 179–80, 220,

250–51

transparency 46, 74, 129, 140

transport and communications sector,

poverty in 86

transportation expenditure 205

Tulong sa Tao program 24, 228, 231

type 1 error, see undercoverage (type

1 error)

type 2 error, see leakage (type 2 error)

undercoverage (type 1 error) 2, 4, 28–9

in India 23, 51, 64, 74

in Indonesia 15, 21, 23, 108, 117,

122–3, 125

in Philippines 232

in PRC 20, 158, 159, 160, 167

UNDP 38, 140, 147

UNDP/ESCAP 71

282 Index

UNICEF 91, 180

universalistic approach, compared

with targeted approach 2–7

urban development programs 48

urban poverty 136, 148–9, 181–2, 187,

188

utilities sector, poverty in 86

Uttar Pradesh (India) 53

van de Walle, D. 24, 30

Velarde, R.B. 244

Vietnam

income poverty elasticity in 219

micro-fi nance in 248, 255, 260

village banks 254, 255, 259–60

Village Fund program, Thailand 201,

202

Village Infrastructure Project (VIP/

P3DT), Indonesia 102

village programs

in Indonesia (IDT program) 13, 15,

21, 79, 93, 94, 96–101

in PRC 16, 146–7

in Thailand (Village Fund program)

201, 202

Visayas (Philippines) 224, 225, 226, 233

vulnerability to poverty 87–8

wage levels 23, 26, 55, 56, 57, 81,

102–3, 127

Wang, S. 139, 173, 176, 178, 180

Warr, P. 25

water supplies 16, 38, 79, 153, 197, 229;

see also irrigation

watersheds 69–70

weighted poverty index 147

Weiss, J. 30, 139

Wen, Q. 152

West Bengal (India) 26, 57

West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) province

(Indonesia) 21, 99, 100

Western Indonesia 85, 97

Wodon, Q.T. 263, 265

women

education of 38, 116

employment of 59, 63, 100, 103

health programs for 22, 90, 125

participation in micro-credit

programs 249, 254, 255, 258–9,

260–61, 262

pension schemes for 68

workfare programs, see food-for-work

programs

World Bank 1, 7, 25, 30, 37, 92, 93, 96,

99, 100, 102, 106, 140, 178, 179,

181, 182, 183, 199, 251, 252, 258,

259

World Food Program 108

World Health Organization (WHO)

180

Wright, G.A.N. 262

Xie, Y. 171

Xinjiang (PRC) 137, 138, 143, 144,

149, 163, 164, 166, 167

yiwugong (labour tax) 154–5

Yunnan (PRC) 137, 138, 142, 143, 145,

146, 149, 163, 164, 166, 167, 168

Zeller, M. 247, 248, 265

Zhang, L. 27, 169

Zhejiang (PRC) 138, 143, 145, 146,

149, 163

Zhu, L. 154, 155, 180

Zilla Parishads 58, 66_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________