Government expenditure on poverty alleviation

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Estimates of the total expenditure on the types of narrowly targeted

interventions discussed above suggest that they have been only a very modest

share of government expenditure. More recent fi gures are not available but

data for the late 1990s show poverty-related measures at no more than 0.60

per cent of central government expenditure. When the cost of the NFA

operations are added the fi gure comes to about 1.5 per cent. Expenditure

by local government on poverty programs at this time was tiny at only

60 centavos per capita compared with Pesos 37 per capita by the central

government (Manasan, 2001).

In terms of the broad targeting expenditure categories a recent review

suggests that real public expenditure per capita on key activities has been

in decline in recent years. Total social services spending per capita in real

terms has declined from Pesos 2487 in 1997 to Pesos 2016 in 2003. In

particular, education expenditures per capita fell from Pesos 1790 to Pesos

1455 between 1997 and 2003 (Manasan, 2003; Igaya, 2001).