NOTES

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1. The data shown are identical to the most recent data from the National Economic and

Social Development Board (NESDB) for the years 1988 to 1998. The data for the earlier

years have been spliced together with this series from published sources, so that the resulting

series matches the NESDB series for the year 1988. The exception is that the published

data for municipal areas and sanitary districts have been aggregated to an ‘urban’ category

using their respective population shares in the total for urban areas (the sum of the two)

as weights. The data from 1962 to 1988 are summarized in Medhi (1993).

2. One rai is 0.4047 acres or 0.16 hectares. The range 5 to 19 rai thus corresponds to 2.02 to

7.69 acres, or 0.77 to 3.04 hectares.

3. For example, the study defi nes benefi ts in terms of the costs of activities making no

allowance for differences in quality of delivery.

4. In each case, a linear equation was estimated, including an intercept term, which is not

reported in the table.

5. The negative relationship between size of province and expenditure per person, observed

for the total budget allocation, is concentrated in the ‘Infrastructure’ and ‘Others’

categories.

6. Some authors use the term ‘anti-poor’ to refer to expenditures that favor the rich. This term

is avoided here because it implies that the poor are actually harmed by these expenditures

and this is not necessarily true, except in a relative sense, compared with the rich. The poor

are not necessarily harmed in absolute terms by the existence of these programs unless

the absolute benefi t they receive from these expenditures is smaller than the additional tax

revenues they must pay to fi nance them.