1. The Reform of UruKAgina

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17 18 

PUBLICATION: Ukg. 4 xii 13–22 (=Ukg. 5 xi 20–29)=H. Steible and H.

Behrens, Die Altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften (Stuttgart: Franz

Steiner, 1991).

TRANSLITERATIONANDTRANSLATION: Piotr Steinkeller, “The Reform

of UruKAgina and an Early Sumerian Term for ‘Prison,’” AuOr 9

(1991), 227–233.

TRANSLATION: Jerrold S. Cooper, Sumerian and Akkadian Royal

Inscriptions: Pre-Sargonic Inscriptions (AOS Translation Series I;Winona

Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1986), 73.

DATE: circa 2350 b.c.e.1

2. NSG 41

PUBLICATION: ITT 2789 = Henri de Genouillac, Inventaire des

Tablettes de Tello, volume II/1 (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1910), number 2789.

General note: Text 8 in O. R. Gurney, “Texts from Dur-Kurigalzu,” Iraq 11 (1949), 138,

apparently describes a slaying, but the text is too fragmentary for any conclusions to be drawn

from it. ARM XIII 109 (G. Dossin et al., Textes divers [ARM XIII; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1964],

116) might describe a parricide, but the text is difficult.

1Cf. Am´elie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East, c. 3000330 B.C. (London: Routledge, 1995), 27.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: NSG 41 = Adam Falkenstein,

Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden (Bayerische Akademie der

Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historisch Klasse 40; Munich: Bayerische

Akademie derWissenschaften, 1956), 2.67–69; Bernard J. Siegel, “Slavery

During the Third Dynasty of Ur,” American Anthropologist 40, issue 1,

part 2 (1947), 24–25.

DATE: Neo-Sumerian period (twenty-first century b.c.e.)

3. NSG 202

PUBLICATION: TEO 6168 = Henri de Genouillac, Textes economiques

dOumma de l’’epoque dOur (TCL 5; Paris: Librairie Orientaliste/Paul

Geuthner, 1922), number 6168.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: NSG 202 = Falkenstein,

Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden, number 202, 2.331–333.

DATE: Neo-Sumerian period (twenty-first century b.c.e.)

NSG 202 is a Sammeltafel from Umma, recording a number of cases, one of

which involves homicide.

4. NSG 121

PUBLICATION: TEO 6165 = de Genouillac, Textes economiques

dOumma de l’’epoque dOur, number 6165.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: NSG 121 = Falkenstein,

Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden, number 121, 2.206–208.

DATE: Neo-Sumerian period (twenty-first century b.c.e.)

5. The Nippur Murder Trial

PUBLICATION: 2 N-T.54; duplicates: PBS VIII 173, 3N-T.340 + 3NT.

403 + 3N-T.273, 3N-T.426 = Edward Chiera, Legal and Administrative

Documents from Nippur (Publications from the Babylonian Section

VIII; Philadelphia: University Museum, 1914), number 173.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Thorkild Jacobsen, “An

Ancient Mesopotamian Trial for Homicide,” in Toward the Image of

Tammuz and Other Essays on Mesopotamian History and Culture (ed.

William L. Moran; HSS 21; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University

Press, 1970; originally published in Analecta Biblica 12 [1959]),

198–201.

TRANSLATION: Samuel Noah Kramer, From the Tablets of Sumer (3d

edition; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981 [1st edition,

1956]), 57–58; Martha T. Roth, “Gender and Law: A Case Study from

Ancient Mesopotamia,” in Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the

Ancient Near East (ed. Victor H. Matthews, Bernard M. Levinson, and

Tikva Frymer-Kensky; JSOTSup 262; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press,

1998), 173–184.

CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE 209

DATE:2 reign of Ur-Ninurta of Isin (1923–1896 b.c.e.)

The so-called Nippur Murder Trial is recorded in Sumerian on a number of

tablets. The homicide itself took place in the very late 1900s b.c.e. Two

copies date from the reign of Rim-Sin of Larsa (1822–1763 b.c.e.). Four

copies date from the reign of Samsiliuna and later (no earlier than 1749

b.c.e.). On these later copies, a number of trials are recorded.

6. CT 29 42

PUBLICATION: BM 78184 = Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets

in the British Museum 29 (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1971

[1910]), plates 42, 43, 41.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: P. Dhorme, “M´elanges,”

RA 8 (1914), 102–105; Arthur Ungnad, Babylonische Briefe aus der Zeit

der

˘

Hammurapi-Dynastie (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1914), 180–184.

DATE: Old Babylonian period, reign of Samsiliuna (1749–1712 b.c.e.)

7. Riftin 46

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: A. P.

Riftin, “Iz vavilonskogo prava,” in Sergeju Fedoroviˇcu Oldenburgu k

pjatidesjatiletiju nauˇcno-obˇsˇcestvennoj dejatelnosti 18821932 [To Sergei

Fedorovich Oldenburg on the Fiftieth Anniversary of his Scholarly Endeavors

1882–1932] (Leningrad: Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk, 1934),

437–442.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: A. P. Riftin, Staro-Vavilonskie

iuridicheskie i administrativnye dokumenty y sobraniiakh SSSR

[Old Babylonian Judicial and Administrative Documents] (Moscow:

Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk, 1937), 91–94; B. Landsberger, “Gerichtsprotokoll

u¨ber einen Mordprozess,” ZA 43 (1936): 315–316; John David

Fortner, “Adjudicating Entities and Levels of Judicial Authority in Lawsuit

Records of the Old Babylonian Period” (Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew

Union College, 1996), 749–751.

DATE: 1792 b.c.e. (year 30 of Rim-Sin, 1822–1763)

8. CCT 4 30a

PUBLICATION: Sidney Smith, Cuneiform Texts from Cappadocian

Tablets in the British Museum IV (London: British Museum, 1927), number

30a.

2The tablets themselves date to the late nineteenth century b.c.e. based on the stratigraphy of

the site and the particular layer in which 2N-T.54 was excavated. The writing on PBS VIII

173 indicates that it is of approximately the same age as 2N-T.54. The duplicates appear to

be at least from the reign of Samsiliuna (1749–1712 b.c.e.) or later. See Jacobsen, “An Ancient

Mesopotamian Trial for Homicide,” 196.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Louis Lawrence Orlin,

Assyrian Colonies in Cappadocia (The Hague: Mouton, 1970), 123–125.

DATE: Old Assyrian period

9. ARM III 18

PUBLICATION: ARM III 18 = J. R. Kupper, Lettres (TCL 24; ARM III;

Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1948), plate 20, number 18.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. R. Kupper, Correspondance

de Kibri-Dagan (ARMT III; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1950),

34–37.

DATE: Old Babylonian period

10. ARM VIII 1

PUBLICATION: ARM VIII 1 = Georges Boyer, Textes juridiques et administratifs

(TCL 29; ARM VIII; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1957), number 1.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Georges Boyer, Textes juridiques

(ARMT VIII; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1958), 2–7.

TRANSLATION: J. J. Finkelstein, in ANET3, 545.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Boyer, Textes juridiques, 167–168, 178–182; Reuven

Yaron, “Varia on Adoption,” Journal of Juristic Papyrology 15 (1965):

171–183, esp. 173–175.

DATE: Old Babylonian period

11. ARM XIII 145

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: G. Dossin, J. Bott´ero, M.

Birot, et al., Textes divers (ARM XIII; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1964),

151–152, number 145.

DATE: Old Babylonian period

12. ARM VI 43

PUBLICATION: ARM VI 43 = J. R. Kupper, Lettres (TCL 27; ARM VI;

Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1953), 43.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. R. Kupper, Correspondance

de Ba

˘

hdi-Lim (ARMT VI; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1954), 66–

69.

TRANSLATION: A. Leo Oppenheim, Letters from Mesopotamia

(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967), 103–104.

DATE: Old Babylonian period

13. ARM VI 37

PUBLICATION: ARM VI 37 = Kupper, Lettres (TCL 27; ARM VI; Paris:

Paul Geuthner, 1953), 37.

CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE 211

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Kupper, Correspondance

de Ba

˘

hdi-Lim (ARMT VI; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1954), 58–61.

DATE: Old Babylonian period

14. ARM II 123

PUBLICATION: ARM II 123 = Charles-F. Jean, Lettres (TCL 23; ARM

II; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1941), 123.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. R. Kupper, Correspondance

de Ba

˘

hdi-Lim (ARMT II; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1950), 204–

207.

DATE: Old Babylonian period

15. ARM V 35

PUBLICATION: G. Dossin, Lettres (ARM V; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1951),

number 35.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: G. Dossin, Correspondance

de Iasma

˘

h-addu (ARMT V; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1952),

56–59.

DATE: Old Babylonian period

16. Wiseman Alalakh 17

PUBLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, AND TRANSLATION: D. J.

Wiseman, The Alalakh Tablets (London: British Institute of Archaeology

at Ankara, 1953), number 17.

DATE: mid–fifteenth century b.c.e.

17. BBSt 9

PUBLICATION: BBSt 9 = L. W. King, Babylonian Boundary-Stones

and Memorial Tablets in the British Museum (London: British Museum,

1912), plate 79.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: King, Babylonian

Boundary-Stones, 51–69.

DATE: The kudurru was inscribed during the reign of Nabu-mukin-apli

(978–943 b.c.e.). The homicide recounted in the kudurru occurred in the

second year of Ninurta-kudurri-us.ur (986/985 b.c.e.).

18. TCL 12 117

PUBLICATION: TCL 12 117 = G. Contenau, Contrats neo-babyloniens

I (TCL 12; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1927), plate LVI.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Ellen Whitney Moore,

Neo-Babylonian Business and Administrative Documents (Ann Arbor:

University of Michigan Press, 1935), 112–113.

DATE: Neo-Babylonian period

212 APPENDIX

19. ABL 753

PUBLICATION: ABL 753 = Robert Francis Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian

Letters Belonging to the Kouyunyik Collections of the British

Museum (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902), 7.808.

TEXT, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: T. G. Pinches, An

Outline of Assyrian Grammar (London: H. J. Glaisher, 1910), 44.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Manfried Dietrich, Die

Aramaer Sudbabyloniens in der Sargonidenzeit (AOAT 7; Kevelaer:

Butzon & Bercker, 1970), 184–185.

DATE: Neo-Assyrian period

20. ADD 618

PUBLICATION: ADD 618 = C. H. W. Johns, Assyrian Deeds and

Documents: Volume 1 (2d edition; Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co.,

1924), number 618, pp. 470–471.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. Kohler and A. Ungnad,

Assyrische Rechtsurkunden (Leipzig: Eduard Pfeiffer, 1913), number

660, pp. 388–389; Martha T. Roth, “Homicide in the Neo-Assyrian

Period,” in Language, Literature, and History: Philological and Historical

Studies Presented to Erica Reiner (ed. by Francesca Rochberg-

Halton; AOS 67; New Haven, Connecticut: American Oriental Society,

1987), 352–354; Theodore Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents

in the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum (Studia Pohl, Series

Maior 14; Rome: Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1988), number 334,

pp. 386–387; Remko Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures (SAA 5;

Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1996), number 41,

pp. 63–65.

TRANSLITERATION: J. N. Postgate, Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents

(Warminster, England: Aris&Phillips, 1976), number 50, pp. 170–

171.

TRANSLATION: Theophile J. Meek, “Mesopotamian Legal Documents,”

in Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament,

221.

DATE: eighth month, third day, 657 b.c.e.

21. ADD 321

PUBLICATION: ADD 321 = Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents:

Volume 1, number 321, pp. 238–239.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Kohler and Ungnad, Assyrische

Rechtsurkunden, number 659, p. 388; Roth, “Homicide in the

Neo-Assyrian Period,” 357; Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents,

number 341, p. 393; Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures, 65–66.

CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE 213

COLLATION: Simo Parpola, “Collations to Neo-Assyrian Legal Texts

from Nineveh,” Assur 2/5 (1979), 49.

DATE: reign of Assurbanipal (668–627 b.c.e.)

22. ADD 164

PUBLICATION: ADD 164 = Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents:

Volume 1, number 164, pp. 97–98.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Kohler and Ungnad, Assyrische

Rechtsurkunden, number 658, p. 387; Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian

Legal Documents, number 108, pp. 128–129; Theodore Kwasman

and Simo Parpola, Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh,

Part 1 (SAA 6; Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1991), number

264, p. 212; Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures, number 1,

pp. 8–11.

TRANSLITERATION: Postgate, Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents,

number 44, pp. 159–160.

DATE: eleventh3 month, twenty-seventh day, 680 b.c.e.

23. ADD 806

PUBLICATION: ADD 806 = Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents:

Volume 2, number 806, pp. 59–60.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: F. M. Fales and J. N. Postgate,

Imperial Administrative Records, Part II (SAA 11; Helsinki: Helsinki

University Press, 1995), number 222, pp. 149–150; Roth, “Homicide in

the Neo-Assyrian Period,” 357 (for ll. 1_–3_).

DATE: after the reign of Shalmaneser V (after 722 b.c.e.)4

24. Postgate Palace Archive 95

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: ND

219 = BM 131990 (British Museum) = J. N. Postgate, The Governors

Palace Archive (CTN II; London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq,

1973), pp. 123–124 and plate 44.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, “Homicide in the

Neo-Assyrian Period,” 358–359; Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures,

number 43, pp. 66–67.

DATE: tenth month, twenty-seventh day, 740 b.c.e.

3Kwasman reads it as twelfth month, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents, 128.

4This tablet must date from after the reign of Shalmaneser V because he is the later of the two

kings mentioned in this tablet (the other king is Tiglath-Pileser III).

214 APPENDIX

25. CTH 172

PUBLICATION: Emmanuel Laroche, Catalogue des textes hittites (Etudes

et commentaires 75; Paris: Klincksieck, 1971), number 172 = KBo 1.10 +

KUB 4, p. 96b.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Horst Klengel, “Mord

und Bussleistung im Sp¨ atbronzezeitlichen Syrien,” in Death in

Mesopotamia (ed. Bendt Alster; Mesopotamia, Copenhagen Studies in

Assyriology 8; Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1980), 190; Albertine

Hagenbuchner, Die Korrespondenz der Hethiter (Texte der Hethiter 16;

Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1989), 2.285, 291–292.

TRANSLATION: A. L. Oppenheim, Letters from Mesopotamia (Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1967), 144; Gary Beckman, Hittite Diplomatic

Texts (ed. Harry A. Hoffner, Jr.; SBL Writings from the Ancient

World 7; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996), 136.

DATE: circa 1260 b.c.e.

26. El-Amarna 8

PUBLICATION:VAT 152 152=H.Winckler and L. Abel, Der Thontafelfund

von El Amarna (Mitteilungen aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen,

Ko¨nigliche Museen zu Berlin 1–3; Berlin: W. Spemann, 1889–

1890), number 8; O. Schroeder, Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkm aler der

Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin: Heft 11 (Berlin: J. C. Hinrichs, 1915),

number 5.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. A. Knudtzon, Die El-

Amarna-Tafeln I (Aalen: Otto Zeller, 1964 [1915]), 84–89.

TRANSLATION: William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters (Baltimore:

The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), 16–17.

DATE: 1349–1334 b.c.e. (the overlap between the reigns of Amenophis

IV/Akhenaten and Burnaburiyash II)5

27. RS 17.146

PUBLICATION: DO 4607 = Jean Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit

IV/II: Textes Accadiens des Archives Sud (Archives Internationales) (MRS

9/II; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1956), plate XX.

TRANSLITERATIONANDTRANSLATION: Jean Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I: Textes Accadiens des Archives Sud (Archives

Internationales) (MRS 9/I; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1956), 154–

157.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

5For dates of the kings, see Moran, The Amarna Letters, xxxix.

CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE 215

28. RS 17.230

PUBLICATION: DO 4623 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate XXVIII; Ugaritica 3 (1956), p. 23, figure 29.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 153–154.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

29. RS 18.115

PUBLICATION: DO 4833 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate LXXXIII.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 158–160.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

30. RS 17.234

PUBLICATION: DO 4626 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate XXIX.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 173–174.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

31. RS 17.299

PUBLICATION: DO 4653 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate XXXVI.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 182.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

32. RS 17.369B + RS 17.69

PUBLICATION: DO 4709 + 4551 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal

dUgarit IV/II, plate LXI.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 239–240.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

33. RS 17.229

PUBLICATION: DO 4622 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate XXVII; Ugaritica 3 (1956), p. 16, figure 21.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 106.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

216 APPENDIX

34. RS 17.158

PUBLICATION: DO 4618 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate IV.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, pp. 169–171; ANET3, 547.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.6

35. RS 17.42

PUBLICATION: DO 4538 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate IV; Ugaritica 5 (1968), pp. 658–660, figure 25–25A.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 171–172.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

36. RS 17.145

PUBLICATION: DO 4606 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate XIX.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 172–173.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

37. RS 20.22

PUBLICATION: Jean Nougayrol, Ugaritica 5 (MRS XVI; Paris: Imprimerie

Nationale, 1968), 713ff, plates 36 and 36A.

TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Ugaritica 5,

94–97.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. R. Berger, “Zu den ‘akkadischen’ Briefen,” Ugarit-

Forschungen 2 (1970), 286–287.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

38. RS 17.251

PUBLICATION: DO 4641 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate XXXIII; Ugaritica 3 (1956), p. 41, figure 55.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 236–237.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

39. RS 17.337

PUBLICATION: DO 4678 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal dUgarit IV/II,

plate XLVI.

6H. Klengel, “Ini-Teˇsub,” RLA 4.104–105. Ini-Teshub’s Hittite contemporary is Tudhaliya IV.

CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE 217

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais

Royal dUgarit IV/I, 168–169.

DATE: mid–thirteenth century b.c.e.

40. Laws of Ur-Nammu (LU)7

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: Si.

277 = Fatma Yildiz, “A Tablet of Codex Ur-Nammu from Sippar,” Or

(1981): 87–97.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Martha T. Roth, Law

Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor (SBL Writings from the

Ancient World Series; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995), 13–22.

TRANSLATION: J. J. Finkelstein in ANET3, 523–525; Willem H. Ph.

Ro¨mer, “Aus den Gesetzen des Ko¨nigs Urnammu von Ur,” in Rechts- und

Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte (TUAT, Band 1/1;

Gu¨ tersloh: Gu¨ tersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, 1982), 17–23.

DATE: Ur-Nammu’s reign, 2112–circa 2095 b.c.e. (Shulgi’s reign, 2094–

2047 b.c.e.)

41. Laws of Lipit-Ishtar (LL)8

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: Miguel

Civil, “New Sumerian Law Fragments,” in Studies in Honor of Benno

Landsberger (Assyriological Studies 16; Chicago: University of Chicago,

1965), 1–12.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, Law Collections

from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 23–35.

TRANSLATION: S. N. Kramer in ANET3, 159–160; Heiner Lutzmann,

“Aus den Gesetzen des Ko¨nigs Lipit Eschtar von Isin,” in Rechts- und

Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte, 23–31.

DATE: Lipit-Ishtar’s reign, 1934–1924 b.c.e.

7The putative authorship of Ur-Nammu as the lawgiver of this code has been debated because

its first-person prologue is unique among the cuneiform law codes and some of the events of its

historical narrative cannot be dated to Ur-Nammu’s reign. Cf. S. N. Kramer, “The Ur-Nammu

Law Code: WhoWas Its Author?” Or 52 (1983), 453–456. However, some of the events must be

dated to his reign, and not his successor and son, ˇ Sulgi. Piotr Michalowski and C. B. F.Walker, “A

New Sumerian ‘Law Code,’” in DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A: Studies in Honor of A˚ke Sjoberg (ed.

Hermann Behrens, Darlene Loding, and Martha T. Roth; Occasional Publications of the Samuel

Noah Kramer Fund 11; Philadelphia: The University Museum, 1989), 385, points out that it

is unlikely that a war with the independent city of Anˇsan took place during the reign of ˇ Sulgi

because it would be difficult to believe that Ur-Nammu would have allowed this city to remain

independent during his reign. In the same way, one of the kings mentioned, Nama

˘

hani, was the

last independent ruler of Lagash. It was unlikely that he remained independent throughout the

reign of Ur-Nammu.

8There is a possibility that the fragment on which these statutes are found does not actually

belong to the Laws of Lipit-Ishtar.

218 APPENDIX

42. Sumerian Laws Exercise Tablet (SLEx)

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: YBC

2177 = A. T. Clay, “A Sumerian Prototype of the Hammurabi Code,”

Orientalische Literaturzeitung 17 (1914), 1–3; Clay, “Sumerian Prototype

of the Hammurabi Code,” in Miscellaneous Inscriptions in the Babylonian

Collection (Yale Oriental Series, Babylonian Texts 1; New Haven,

Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1915), 18–27.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, Law Collections

from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 42–45.

TRANSLATION: Finkelstein in ANET3, 525–526.

43. Laws of Eshnunna (LE)

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: Albrecht

Goetze, The Laws of Eshnunna (AASOR 31; New Haven, Connecticut:

The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1956); Farouk

N. H. Al-Rawi, “Assault and Battery,” Sumer 38 (1982), 117–20.

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, Law Collections

from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 57–70; E´mile Szlechter, Les lois

dEˇsnunna (Publications de l’Institut de Droit Romain de l’Universit´e

de Paris 12; Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1954);

Reuven Yaron, The Laws of Eshnunna (2d edition; Jerusalem: The

Magnes Press, 1988).

TRANSLATION: Rykle Borger, “Der Codex Eschnunna,” in Rechts- und

Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte, 32–38; Goetze in

ANET3, 161–163.

DATE: early eighteenth century b.c.e.

44. Laws of Hammurapi (LH)

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: V.

Scheil, Textes elamites-semitiques, deuxieme serie (M´emoires de la

D´el´egation Perse 4; Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1902); E. Bergmann, Codex

˘

Hammurabi: Textus Primigenius (Editio tertia; Scripta Pontificii Instituti

Biblici 51; Rome: Pontificium Institutum, 1953).

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: G. R. Driver and John C.

Miles, The Babylonian Laws (Ancient Codes and Laws of the Near East;

Oxford: Clarendon, 1955); Robert Francis Harper, The Code of Hammurabi

(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1904); J. Kohler and F. E.

Peiser, Hammurabis Gesetz (Leipzig: Eduard Pfeiffer, 1904); Roth, Law

Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 71–142; M. E. J. Richardson,

Hammurabis Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary (The Biblical

Seminar 73; Semitic Texts and Studies 2; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic

Press, 2000).

CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE 219

TRANSLATION: Rykle Borger, “Der Codex Hammurapi,” in RechtsundWorschaftsurkunden

Historisch-chronologische Texte, 39–79; Andr´e

Finet, Le Code de Hammurapi (Litt´eratures anciennes du Proche-Orient

6; Paris: CERF, 1973); Meek in ANET3, 163–180.

DATE: Hammurapi’s reign, 1792–1750 b.c.e.

45. Middle Assyrian Laws (MAL)

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: G. R. Driver and John C.

Miles, The Assyrian Laws (Ancient Codes and Laws of the Near East;

Oxford: Clarendon, 1935); Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia

and Asia Minor, 153–194.

TRANSLATION: Rykle Borger, “Die mittelassyrischen Gesetze,” in

Rechts- und Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte, 80–

92; Guillaume Cardascia, Les Lois assyriennes, (Litteratures anciennes

du Proche-Orient; Paris: Les E´ ditions de CERF, 1969); Meek in ANET3,

180–188.

DATE: fourteenth century b.c.e.

46. The Hittite Laws (HL)

PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: Edgar

H. Sturtevant and George Bechtel, A Hittite Chrestomathy (William

Dwight Whitney Linguistic Series; Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of

America, 1935).

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Harry Angier Hoffner,

The Laws of the Hittites: A Critical Edition (DMOA XXIII; Leiden: Brill,

1997); E. Neufeld, The Hittite Laws (London: Luzac & Co. Ltd.)

DATE: Old Hittite recension, circa 1650 b.c.e.; New Hittite recension,

circa 1350–1200 b.c.e.

47. The Edict of Telepinus

PUBLICATION: CTH 19 = KBo III 1 + KBo XII 5 + KBo III 68 + KBo

XII 7 ( = BoTU 23 A) = KUB XI 1 ( = BoTU 23 B) + KBo XIX 96 = KBo

III 67 ( = BoTU 23 C) + KUB XXXI 2 ( = BoTU 23 G) + KUB XXXI 17

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Inge Hoffmann, Der

Erlass Telipinus (Heidelberg: Carl Winter/Universit ¨ atsverlag, 1984), 52–

53; Sturtevant and Bechtel, A Hittite Chrestomathy, 175–200.

TRANSLATION: Hoffner, “Hittite Laws,” in Roth, Law Collections

from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 237; Th. P. J. van den Hout, “The

Proclamation of Telepinus,” in The Context of Scripture: Volume I,

Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (ed. William W. Hallo;

Leiden: Brill, 1997), 196–199; Hans-Martin Ku¨mmel, in Rechts- und

Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte, 464–470.

DATE: mid–seventeenth century b.c.e.

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